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Table 1 Types of emergence identified by Fromm (Fromm 2005 ; complex adaptive systems wiki 2013 )

From: Agent-based modeling and simulation of emergent behavior in air transportation

Type of emergence Name Type of feedback Predictability
Type I Nominal or Simple Emergence No Feedback Predictable
Type II Weak Emergence Top-down feedback Predictable in principle
Type III Multiple Emergence Multiple feedback loops Not Predictable (Chaotic)
Type IV Strong Emergence Multiple feedback loops Not Predictable, even in principle
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